Waarom corruptie en integriteit studeren?
Why study Corruption and Integrity?
In order to understand that corruption is not the particular characteristic of poor countries. We, the rich are as corrupt? It is the payer and the payee. Are the rich so rich because they are more corrupt than the poor?
INTENTION The intention of this website is to expose more the corruption in the rich countries of the world. What happens in the poorer part of the world attracts already quite some attention. Dominant is the world view that corruption is a characteristic of the ‘poor South’ of the world, of the countries in transition from being underdeveloped to developed, and from plan- and state-run economies to economies run by private market concepts. The ‘Corruption Perceptions Index’ of Transparency International confirms year after year this misconception. All OECD-countries always figure in the top half, most African nations in the bottom half.
At the highest level in the OECD this misconception is strongly embedded. Read the Foreword by Angel Gurria, OECD Secretary-General in Corruption: a glossary of international standards in criminal law – ISBN 978-92-64-02740-4 – © OECD 2008: ‘Certainly the OECD Convention has conducted its 36 [in 2008] signatory countries towards meeting their goals to stop foreign bribery. But in today’s globalised world, the efforts of 36 countries are not enough to tackle a problem as widespread and complex as corruption. Lawmakers and decision makers in all countries – and especially where governments and economies are undergoing major transitions – must also be a part of global efforts to stem corruption. In order to draw up effective laws to implement international anti-corruption conventions, legislators must have a clear, common understanding of the international standards set by these conventions.’
The least to say is that the S-G applauds the anti-corruption efforts among his Members (“meeting their goals’) and that all other countries should step up their efforts (“to become effective’).
On this site you will find a growing accumulation of information showing that grand corruption is fuelled by the rich (countries). Examples will be numerous about the size of corruption in the rich countries overshadowing what happens in Central and Eastern Europe, Africa, Latin-America and Asia. It will be shown that the poor nations of the world do not even have the means for the huge sums of money needed for the ‘grand corruption’ in the world. Their gross national products are too low.
Why study Corruption and Integrity?
The anti-corruption arm of the Council of Europe, GRECO, opens its website http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/greco/default_en.asp – with the following statement:
Ever since antiquity, corruption has been one of the most widespread and insidious of social evils. When it involves public officials and elected representatives, it is inimical to the administration of public affairs. Since the end of the 19th century, it has also been seen as a major threat in the private sphere, undermining the trust and confidence which are necessary for the maintenance and development of sustainable economic and social relations. It is estimated that hundreds of billions of Euros are paid in bribes every year.
The Council of Europe exists to uphold and further pluralist democracy, human rights and the rule of law and has taken a lead in fighting corruption as it poses a threat to the very foundations of these core values. As it is emphasised in the Criminal Law Convention, corruption threatens the rule of law, democracy and human rights, undermines good governance, fairness and social justice, distorts competition, hinders economic development and endangers the stability of democratic institutions and the moral foundations of society.
The approach of the Council of Europe in the fight against corruption has always been multidisciplinary and consists of three interrelated elements: the setting of European norms and standards, monitoring of compliance with the standards and capacity building offered to individual countries and regions, through technical co-operation programmes.
The Council of Europe has developed a number of multifaceted legal instruments dealing with matters such as the criminalisation of corruption in the public and private sectors, liability and compensation for damage caused by corruption, conduct of public officials and the financing of political parties. These instruments are aimed at improving the capacity of States to fight corruption domestically as well as at international level. The monitoring of compliance with these standards is entrusted to the Group of States against Corruption, GRECO [www.coe.int/greco ]. Study and do research with the GRECO-linked institutes and centres: http://www.coe.int/en/web/greco/research-institutes-and-centres.